Check Point: Route-Based

This topic provides a route-based configuration for Check Point CloudGuard. The instructions were validated with Check Point CloudGuard version R80.20.

This topic is for route-based (VTI-based) configuration. If you instead want policy-based configuration, see Check Point: Policy-Based.

Check Point experience is required. This topic does not include how to add Check Point CloudGuard Security Gateway to Check Point CloudGuard Security Manager. For more information about using Check Point products, see the Check Point documentation.

Important

Oracle provides configuration instructions for a set of vendors and devices. Make sure to use the configuration for the correct vendor.

If the device or software version that Oracle used to verify the configuration does not exactly match your device or software, the configuration might still work for you. Consult your vendor's documentation and make any necessary adjustments.

If your device is for a vendor not in the list of verified vendors and devices, or if you're already familiar with configuring your device for IPSec, see the list of supported IPSec parameters and consult your vendor's documentation for assistance.

VPN Connect is the IPSec VPN that Oracle Cloud Infrastructure offers for connecting your on-premises network to a virtual cloud network (VCN).

The following diagram shows a basic IPSec connection to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure with redundant tunnels. IP addresses used in this diagram are for example purposes only.

This image summarizes the general layout of your on-premises network, VPN Connect tunnels, and VCN.

Best Practices

This section covers general best practices and considerations for using VPN Connect.

Configure All Tunnels for Every IPSec Connection

Oracle deploys two IPSec headends for each of your connections to provide high availability for your mission-critical workloads. On the Oracle side, these two headends are on different routers for redundancy purposes. Oracle recommends configuring all available tunnels for maximum redundancy. This is a key part of the "Design for Failure" philosophy.

Have Redundant CPEs in Your On-Premises Network Locations

Each of your sites that connects with IPSec to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure should have redundant edge devices (also known as customer-premises equipment (CPE)). You add each CPE to the Oracle Console and create a separate IPSec connection between your dynamic routing gateway (DRG)  and each CPE. For each IPSec connection, Oracle provisions two tunnels on geographically redundant IPSec headends. For more information, see the Connectivity Redundancy Guide (PDF).

Routing Protocol Considerations

When you create an IPSec VPN, it has two redundant IPSec tunnels. Oracle encourages you to configure your CPE to use both tunnels (if your CPE supports it). Note that in the past, Oracle created IPSec VPNs that had up to four IPSec tunnels.

The following two routing types are available, and you choose the routing type separately for each tunnel in the IPSec VPN:

  • BGP dynamic routing: The available routes are learned dynamically through BGP. The DRG dynamically learns the routes from your on-premises network. On the Oracle side, the DRG advertises the VCN's subnets.
  • Static routing: When you set up the IPSec connection to the DRG, you specify the particular routes to your on-premises network that you want the VCN to know about. You also must configure your CPE device with static routes to the VCN's subnets. These routes are not learned dynamically.

For more information about routing with VPN Connect, including Oracle recommendations on how to manipulate the BGP best path selection algorithm, see Routing for the Oracle IPSec VPN.

Other Important CPE Configurations

Ensure access lists on your CPE are configured correctly to not block necessary traffic from or to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.

If you have multiple tunnels up simultaneously, ensure that your CPE is configured to handle traffic coming from your VCN on any of the tunnels. For example, you need to disable ICMP inspection, configure TCP state bypass, and so on. For more details about the appropriate configuration, contact your CPE vendor's support.

Caveats and Limitations

This section covers general important characteristics and limitations of VPN Connect to be aware of.

Asymmetric Routing

Oracle uses asymmetric routing across the multiple tunnels that make up the IPSec connection. Configure your firewalls accordingly. Otherwise, ping tests or application traffic across the connection will not reliably work.

When you use multiple tunnels to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, Oracle recommends that you configure your routing to deterministically route traffic through the preferred tunnel. If you want to use one IPSec tunnel as primary and another as backup, configure more-specific routes for the primary tunnel (BGP) and less-specific routes (summary or default route) for the backup tunnel (BGP/static). Otherwise, if you advertise the same route (for example, a default route) through all tunnels, return traffic from your VCN to your on-premises network will route to any of the available tunnels (because Oracle uses asymmetric routing).

For specific Oracle routing recommendations about how to force symmetric routing, see Routing for the Oracle IPSec VPN.

Route-Based or Policy-Based IPSec VPN

The IPSec protocol uses Security Associations (SAs) to determine how to encrypt packets. Within each SA, you define encryption domains to map a packet's source and destination IP address and protocol type to an entry in the SA database to define how to encrypt or decrypt a packet.

Note

Other vendors or industry documentation might use the term proxy ID, security parameter index (SPI), or traffic selector when referring to SAs or encryption domains.

There are two general methods for implementing IPSec tunnels:

  • Route-based tunnels: Also called next-hop-based tunnels. A route table lookup is performed on a packet's destination IP address. If that route’s egress interface is an IPSec tunnel, the packet is encrypted and sent to the other end of the tunnel.
  • Policy-based tunnels: The packet's source and destination IP address and protocol are matched against a list of policy statements. If a match is found, the packet is encrypted based on the rules in that policy statement.

The Oracle VPN headends use route-based tunnels but can work with policy-based tunnels with some caveats listed in the following sections.

Important

The Oracle VPN headend supports only a single encryption domain. If your policy includes multiple entries, the tunnel will flap or there will be connectivity problems in which only a single policy works at any one time.
Encryption domain for route-based tunnels

If your CPE supports route-based tunnels, use that method to configure the tunnel. It's the simplest configuration with the most interoperability with the Oracle VPN headend.

Route-based IPSec uses an encryption domain with the following values:

  • Source IP address: Any (0.0.0.0/0)
  • Destination IP address: Any (0.0.0.0/0)
  • Protocol: IPv4

If you need to be more specific, you can use a single summary route for your encryption domain values instead of a default route.

Encryption domain for policy-based tunnels

If your CPE supports only policy-based tunnels, there are restrictions on the policy that you can use on the CPE.

When you use policy-based tunnels, every policy entry that you define generates a pair of IPSec SAs. This pair is referred to as an encryption domain.

Important

The Oracle VPN headend supports only a single encryption domain. If your policy includes multiple entries, the tunnel will flap or there will be connectivity problems in which only a single policy works at any one time.

If you use policy-based IPSec, Oracle recommends using a single encryption domain with the following values:

  • Source IP address: Any (0.0.0.0/0)
  • Destination IP address: VCN CIDR (example: 10.120.0.0/20)
  • Protocol: IPv4

Make sure the single encryption domain matches any traffic that needs to go from your on-premises network across the IPSec tunnel to the VCN. The VCN CIDR must not overlap with your on-premises network.

If Your CPE Is Behind a NAT Device

In general, the CPE IKE identifier configured on your end of the connection must match the CPE IKE identifier that Oracle is using. By default, Oracle uses the CPE's public IP address, which you provide when you create the CPE object in the Oracle Console. However, if your CPE is behind a NAT device, the CPE IKE identifier configured on your end might be the CPE's private IP address, as show in the following diagram.

This image shows the CPE behind a NAT device, the public and private IP addresses, and the CPE IKE identifier.
Note

Some CPE platforms do not allow you to change the local IKE identifier. If you cannot, you must change the remote IKE ID in the Oracle Console to match your CPE's local IKE ID. You can provide the value either when you set up the IPSec connection, or later, by editing the IPSec connection. Oracle expects the value to be either an IP address or a fully qualified domain name (FQDN) such as cpe.example.com. For instructions, see Changing the CPE IKE Identifier That Oracle Uses.

CPE Configuration (Route-Based)

Important

The configuration instructions in this section are provided by Oracle Cloud Infrastructure for your CPE. If you need support or further assistance, contact your CPE vendor's support directly.

The following figure shows the basic layout of the IPSec connection.

This image summarizes the general layout of the IPSec connection and tunnels.

About Using IKEv2

Oracle supports Internet Key Exchange version 1 (IKEv1) and version 2 (IKEv2). If you configure the IPSec connection in the Console to use IKEv2, you must configure your CPE to use only IKEv2 and related IKEv2 encryption parameters that your CPE supports. For a list of parameters that Oracle supports for IKEv1 or IKEv2, see Supported IPSec Parameters.

If you want to use IKEv2, there's a variation on one of the tasks presented in the next section. Specifically, in task 4, when configuring encryption, select IKEv2 only for the encryption method.

Configuration Process

Redundancy with BGP Over IPSec

For redundancy, Oracle recommends using BGP over IPSec. By default, if you have two connections of the same type (for example, two IPSec VPNs that both use BGP), and you advertise the same routes across both connections, Oracle prefers the oldest established route when responding to requests or initiating connections. If you want to force routing to be symmetric, Oracle recommends using BGP and AS path prepending with your routes to influence which path Oracle uses when responding to and initiating connections. For more information, see Routing Details for Connections to Your On-Premises Network.

The Oracle DRG uses /30 or /31 as subnets for configuring IP addresses on the interface tunnels. Remember that the IP address must be part of the IPSec VPN's encryption domain and must be allowed in the firewall policy to reach the peer VPN through the interface tunnel. You might need to implement a static route through the tunnel interface for the peer IP address.

Oracle's BGP ASN in commercial regions is 31898. If you're configuring VPN Connect for the Government Cloud, see Required VPN Connect Parameters for Government Cloud and also Oracle's BGP ASN.

For your side, you can use a private ASN. Private ASNs are in the range 64512–65534.

Task 1: Install IPSec VPN on Check Point CloudGuard Security Gateway
Prerequisite: Before starting, add Check Point CloudGuard Security Gateway to Check Point CloudGuard Security Manager. Also establish the Secure Internal Communication (SIC) so you can configure the IPSec tunnel by using the Check Point Smart Console. For instructions to add the Security Gateway to CloudGuard or to establish the SIC, see the Check Point documentation.
This image illustrates the prerequisite.
  1. Install the IPSec VPN module. Oracle recommends that you also install the Monitoring module for traffic analysis.

    This image shows where to enable the IPSec VPN module.

  2. Click OK to save your changes.
Task 2: Create the VTI interface from GAIA

In this task, you configure a VTI interface that passes traffic by using routing rules from the VTI interface to the newly created IPSec tunnel.

  1. Log in to the GAIA portal using the Check Point CloudGuard Security Gateway public or private IP address.
  2. On the GAIA portal, select the Advanced view.
  3. Under Network Management, go to Network Interfaces.
  4. Click Add, and then click VPN Tunnel.

    This image shows where to add a VPN tunnel in the GAIA portal.

  5. Specify the following items:

    • VPN Tunnel ID: A number that will be added to the VTI interface called vpnt*, where the asterisk is the VPN tunnel ID number specified . For VPN tunnel ID = 1, the interface is labeled vpnt1.
    • Peer: The name of the interoperable device that you created earlier for the IPSec tunnel. In this case, the name is OCI-VPN_BGP1. Important: If the name you specify here does not match the name of the interoperable device, traffic does not flow through the IPSec tunnel.
    • Numbered: Select Numbered to create a numbered interface.
    • Local Address: The local IP address that was specified in the Oracle Console as the Inside Tunnel Interface - CPE.
    • Remote Address: The remote IP address that was specified in the Oracle Console as the Inside Tunnel Interface - Oracle.

    This image shows the VPN tunnel parameters to configure in the GAIA portal.

  6. Click OK.

  7. Under Network Management, go to IPv4 Static Routes.
  8. Specify the following items:

    • Static route for the Oracle IP address: Add an IP address with /32 mask for the remote IP address that was specified in the Oracle Console as the Inside Tunnel Interface - Oracle.
    • Static routes to the VCN subnets: If you're using static routing for this IPSec connection to Oracle, add at least one subnet for the Oracle VCN to be reached through the IPSec tunnel. The following screenshot shows a static route to 172.31.2.0/26. If you're using BGP for this IPSec connection to Oracle, skip this item because thoe routes are learned through BGP (see the next section).

    This image shows the static routes to configure in the GAIA portal.

    Now all traffic with a specific destination learned from a static route will pass through the newly created IPSec tunnel.

  9. Get the interfaces and verify that the VPN tunnel is in the list:

    1. In the Smart Console, go to Gateways & Servers.
    2. Select the Check Point Security Gateways, and double-click.
    3. Under General Properties, on the Network Management page, select Get Interfaces.

      The VPN tunnel interface should appear in the list.

  10. To force a route-based VPN to take priority, create an empty group and assign it to the VPN domain:
    1. On the VPN Domain page, select Manually defined, and then select Create empty group.
    2. Click New, select Group, and then select Simple Group.
    3. Enter an Object Name, and then click OK. Do not assign any objects to this empty group.

      This image shows the empty group for the VPN domain.

Task 3: Create an interoperable device

Later, you will create a VPN Community. Before you can, you must create an Interoperable Device that will be used in Check Point CloudGuard Security Gateway to define the Oracle DRG.

  1. Create the new interoperable device.

    This image shows where to create a new interoperable device.

  2. On the General Properties page of the new interoperable device, add a name to identify the IPSec tunnel. Enter the IP address that Oracle assigned for the Oracle end of the tunnel when creating the IPSec connection.

    This image shows where to configure the interoperable device.

  3. To force the route-based VPN to take priority, you must create an empty group and assign it to the VPN domain. To do that, on the Topology page, in the VPN Domain section, select Manually defined, and select the empty group.

  4. On the IPSec VPN page, you can optionally add the new interoperable device to an existing VPN Community. You can skip this step if you don't yet have any VPN Communities created.

    Notice that you skip the Traditional mode configuration, because you will define all the Phase 1 and Phase 2 parameters in the VPN Community in a later step. The VPN Community applies those parameters to all interoperable devices that belong to the VPN Community.

    This image shows where to add the interoperable device to a VPN community.

  5. On the Link Selection page, under Always use this IP address, select Main address, which was the address you specified when creating the interoperable device. If necessary, you can use a specific IP address that will be used as the IKE ID.

    This image shows where to specify the address to use for the interoperable device.

  6. On the VPN Advanced page, select Use the community settings, which applies all the options and values in the VPN Community, including the Phase 1 and Phase 2 parameters.

    This image shows where to specify advanced VPN settings.

  7. Click OK to save your changes.
Task 4: Create a VPN community
  1. Go to Security Policies, and then from Access Tools, select VPN Communities.
  2. Create a Star Community.

    This image shows where to create a VPN community.

  3. For the star community, add a name.

  4. On the Gateways page, select the values for Center Gateways and Satellite Gateways. This star community acts as a settings template for the interoperable devices you specify in Center Gateways and Satellite Gateways.

    • Center Gateways: For the Check Point CloudGuard Security Gateway.
    • Satellite Gateways: For the CPE that connects to the Oracle DRG for each IPSec tunnel.

    This image shows where to configure the gateways for the VPN community.

  5. To allow traffic, go to Global Properties, and then VPN, and then Advanced.

    This image shows where to find the global properties.

    This image shows where to find the VPN advanced properties to allow traffic.

  6. Select the check box for Enable VPN Directional Match in VPN Column. Later you will create a security policy that uses a directional match condition to allow traffic to pass based on routing rules.

  7. Click OK.
  8. On the Encryption page, configure the Phase 1 and Phase 2 parameters that Oracle supports. For a list of those values, see Supported IPSec Parameters.

    If you're configuring VPN Connect for the Government Cloud, see Required VPN Connect Parameters for Government Cloud.

    Notice that if you want to use IKEv2, for the Encryption Method, instead select IKEv2 only.

    This image shows where you can configure the Phase 1 and Phase 2 parameters.

  9. On the Tunnel Management page, select Set Permanent Tunnels. Oracle recommends that you:

    • Select On all tunnels in the community to keep all the Oracle IPSec tunnels up all the time.
    • In the VPN Tunnel Sharing section, select One VPN tunnel per Gateway pair.

    The latter option generates only one pair of IPSec security associations (SAs), and each SA with only one security parameter index (SPI) (unidirectional).

    When you use policy-based tunnels, every policy entry generates a pair of IPSec SAs, (also referred to as an encryption domain).

    Important

    The Oracle VPN headend supports only a single encryption domain. If your policy includes multiple entries, the tunnel will flap or there will be connectivity problems in which only a single policy works at any one time.

    Oracle creates a route-based IPSec connection, which means that everything is routed through an encryption domain that has 0.0.0.0/0 (any) for local traffic and 0.0.0.0/0 (any) for remote traffic. For more information, see Supported Encryption Domain or Proxy ID.

    This image shows where you can configure tunnel management options.

  10. On the Shared Secret page, select Use only Shared Secret for all external members, and add the shared secret that Oracle generated for the tunnel when creating the IPSec connection.

    Currently Oracle supports only shared secret keys. Note that you can change the shared secret in the Oracle Console.

    This image shows where you can specify the shared secret for the tunnel.

  11. Click OK to save your changes.
Task 5: Create a security policy
  1. Go to Access Control, and then the Policy tab. Create specific security policies by using Directional Match Condition, which allows traffic to pass based on routing tables. Set up the condition with these settings:

    • Internal_Clear > VPN Community created
    • VPN Community created > VPN Community created
    • VPN Community created > Internal_Clear

    In this case, the VPN Community is OCI-DRG-BGP and the Internal_Clear is predefined by Check Point.

    This image shows how to configure the security policy directional match condition.

  2. Click OK to save your changes.
  3. Click Install Policy to apply the configuration.

    This image shows where to click Install Policy.

Task 1: Enable BGP

Perform the following steps for each tunnel.

  1. Go to Advanced Routing, and then BGP.
  2. Under BGP Global Settings, click Change Global Settings, and then add a router ID and local ASN.

    This image shows where to change the BGP global settings.

  3. Click Save.
Task 2: Redistribute routes into BGP
  1. Go to Advanced Routing, and then Route Distribution.
  2. Click Add Redistribution From, and then select Interface, which is for adding all connected subnets.

    This image shows where to configure route distribution.

  3. In the Add Redistribution from Interface dialog, configure the following items:

    • To Protocol: Select BGP AS 31898, which is the Oracle ASN for commercial regions. If you're configuring VPN Connect for the Government Cloud, see Oracle's BGP ASN.
    • Interface: Select all to advertise all connected subnets.

    This image shows the Add Redistribution from Interface dialog.

  4. Click Save.

Now the BGP session should be up and advertising and receiving subnets.

Verification

The following CLI command verifies BGP peers and routing.

show bgp peers

The following command verifies that you're receiving BGP routes.

show route bgp

The following command verifies the routes that are being advertised. In this example, replace <remote_IP_address> with the remote IP address that was specified in the Oracle Console as the Inside Tunnel Interface - Oracle

show bgp peer <remote_IP_address> advertise 

The following command verifies the routes that are being received.

show bgp peer <remote_IP_address> received

Use options 2 and 4 in the following command to verify security associations (SAs).


vpn tunnelutil


**********     Select Option     **********


(1)                List all IKE SAs
(2)              * List all IPsec SAs
(3)                List all IKE SAs for a given peer (GW) or user (Client)
(4)              * List all IPsec SAs for a given peer (GW) or user (Client)
(5)                Delete all IPsec SAs for a given peer (GW)
(6)                Delete all IPsec SAs for a given User (Client)
(7)                Delete all IPsec+IKE SAs for a given peer (GW)
(8)                Delete all IPsec+IKE SAs for a given User (Client)
(9)                Delete all IPsec SAs for ALL peers and users
(0)                Delete all IPsec+IKE SAs for ALL peers and users


* To list data for a specific CoreXL instance, append "-i <instance number>" to your selection.


(Q)               Quit


*******************************************

A Monitoring service is also available from Oracle Cloud Infrastructure to actively and passively monitor your cloud resources. For information about monitoring your VPN Connect, see VPN Connect Metrics.

If you have issues, see VPN Connect Troubleshooting.