Managing Oracle Databases on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer

Learn about the prerequisites, supported versions, creating and configuring Oracle Database for use in Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer, and other database-related administrative tasks.

Prerequisites and Limitations for Creating and Managing Oracle Databases on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer

Review the prerequisites for creating and managing Oracle Databases on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer.

Before you can create and use an Oracle Database on Exadata Cloud@Customer, you must:

  • Provision Exadata Cloud@Customer infrastructure
  • Configure a VM cluster
  • Create any required backup destinations

You can create one or more databases on each Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer system. Other than the storage and processing limits of your Oracle Exadata system, there is no maximum for the number of databases that you can create. By default, databases on Exadata Cloud@Customer use Oracle Database Enterprise Edition - Extreme Performance. This edition provides all the features of Oracle Database Enterprise Edition, plus all of the database enterprise management packs, and all of the Enterprise Edition options, such as Oracle Database In-Memory, and Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC). If you use your own Oracle Database licenses, then your ability to use various features is limited by your license holdings.

Oracle Database Releases Supported by Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer

Learn about the versions of Oracle Database that Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer supports.

Exadata Cloud@Customer supports the following Oracle Database software releases:

  • Oracle Database 19c
  • Oracle Database 18c
  • Oracle Database 12c Release 2
  • Oracle Database 12c Release 1
  • Oracle Database 11g Release 2

About Provisioning and Configuring Oracle Databases on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer

Learn about provisioning and configuring Oracle Database on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer

When you provision a database, you can associate it with a backup destination, and enable automatic backups. Each Oracle Database is configured as follows:
  • Each database is configured with Oracle Real Application Clusters (Oracle RAC) database instances running on every node in the virtual machine (VM) cluster.
  • Each database uses a separate set of Oracle binaries in a separate Oracle home location.
  • Each database is configured with default instance parameter settings. While the defaults are reasonable for many cases, you should review the instance parameter settings to ensure that they meet your specific application needs.

    In particular, review the Oracle Database system global area (SGA) and program global area (PGA) instance parameter settings, especially if your VM cluster supports multiple databases. Also, ensure that the sum of all Oracle Database memory allocations never exceeds the available physical memory on each compute node.

  • Each database using Oracle Database 12c Release 1 or a later release is configured as a container database (CDB). One pluggable database (PDB) is created inside the CDB. By default:
    • The first PDB is configured with a local PDB administration user account, named PDBADMIN.
    • The PDBADMIN user account is initially configured with the same administration password as the CDB SYS and SYSTEM users.
    • The PDBADMIN user account is initially configured with basic privileges assigned through two roles; CONNECT and PDB_DBA. However, for most practical administrative purposes you must assign extra privileges to the PDBADMIN user account, or to the PDB_DBA role.

    You can use native Oracle Database facilities to create extra PDBs, and to manage all of your PDBs. The dbaascli utility also provides a range of convenient PDB management functions.

  • Depending on your Oracle Database release, each database contains web-based monitoring and management tools provided by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Express (EM Express), or by Oracle Enterprise Manager Database Control (Database Control). The dbaascli utility also provides a range of convenient database management functions.
Note

Avoid entering confidential information when assigning descriptions, tags, or friendly names to your cloud resources through the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console, API, or CLI.

Required IAM Policy for Managing Oracle Databases on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer

Review the identity access management (IAM) policy for managing Oracle Database on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer Systems.

A policy is an IAM document that specifies who has what type of access to your resources. It is used in different ways: to mean an individual statement written in the policy language; to mean a collection of statements in a single, named "policy" document (which has an Oracle Cloud ID (OCID) assigned to it); and to mean the overall body of policies your organization uses to control access to resources.

A compartment is a collection of related resources that can be accessed only by certain groups that have been given permission by an administrator in your organization.

To use Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, you must be given the required type of access in a policy written by an administrator, whether you're using the Console, or the REST API with a software development kit (SDK), a command-line interface (CLI), or some other tool. If you try to perform an action, and receive a message that you don’t have permission, or are unauthorized, then confirm with your administrator the type of access you've been granted, and which compartment you should work in.

For administrators: The policy in "Let database admins manage DB systems" lets the specified group do everything with databases, and related database resources.

If you're new to policies, then see "Getting Started with Policies" and "Common Policies". If you want to dig deeper into writing policies for databases, then see "Details for the Database Service".

Using the Console to Manage Databases on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer

To create or terminate a database, complete procedures using the Oracle Exadata console.

Using the Console to Create a Database

To create an Oracle Database with the console, use this procedure.

  1. Open the navigation menu Under Database, and click Exadata Cloud@Customer.

    VM Clusters is selected by default.

  2. Choose your Compartment.

    A list of VM Clusters is displayed for the chosen Compartment.

  3. Click the name of a VM cluster where you want to create the database.

    In the VM Cluster Details page, under Resources, Databases is selected by default.

  4. Click Create Database.

    (or)

    • Open the navigation menu. Under Database, click Exadata Cloud@Customer.

      VM Clusters is selected by default.

    • Choose your Compartment.

      A list of VM Clusters is displayed for the chosen Compartment.

    • Click the name of a VM cluster where you want to create the database.

      In the VM Cluster Details page, under Resources, Databases is selected by default.

    • Click Database Homes.
    • Click the name of the Database Home where you want to create the database.
    • Click Create Database.
  5. Provide the requested information in the Create Database page:

    • Provide the database name: Specify a user-friendly name that you can use to identify the database. The name doesn't need to be unique because an Oracle Cloud Identifier (OCID) uniquely identifies the database.
    • Provide a unique name for the database: Optionally specify a unique name for the database. This attribute defines the value of the DB_UNIQUE_NAME database parameter. The value is case insensitive, it can be up to 30 characters in length, and include alphanumeric characters, underscore (_), number sign (#), and dollar sign ($).

      If you plan to configure the database for backup to a Recovery Appliance backup destination, then the unique database name must match the name that is configured in the Recovery Appliance.

    • Select a database version: From the list, choose the Oracle Database software release that you want to deploy.
    • Database Home: Select an existing Database Home or create one as applicable. Note that this field is not available when you create a Database from the Database Home details page.
      • Select an existing Database Home: If one or more Database Homes already exist for the database version you have selected, then this option is selected by default. And, you will be presented with a list of Database Homes. Select a Database Home from the list.
      • Create a new Database Home: If no Database Homes exist for the database version you have selected, then this option is selected by default.
    • Provide the name of the first PDB: (Optional) Specify the name for the first PDB. A PDB is created with the database.

      To avoid potential service name collisions when using Oracle Net Services to connect to the PDB, ensure that the PDB name is unique across the entire VM cluster. If you do not provide the name of the first PDB, then a system-generated name is used.

    • Provide the administration password: Provide and confirm the Oracle Database administration password. This password is used for administration accounts and functions in the database, including:

      • The password for the Oracle Database SYS and SYSTEMusers.
      • The Transparent Data Encryption (TDE) keystore password.

      For Oracle Database 12c Release 1 or later releases, the password for the PDB administration user in the first PDB (PDBADMIN).must be nine to 30 characters, and contain at least two uppercase, two lowercase, two numeric, and two special characters. The special characters must be _, #, or -. In addition, the password must not contain the name of the tenancy or any reserved words, such as Oracle or Table, regardless of casing.

    • Choose the database workload type: Select the workload type that best suits your application from one of the following options:

      • Online Transactional Processing (OLTP): Select this option to configure the database for a transactional workload, with a bias toward high volumes of random data access.
      • Decision Support System (DSS): Select this option to configure the database for a decision support or data warehouse workload, with a bias toward large data scanning operations.

    • Backup Destination Type: Select a backup destination for the database. From the list, choose an option:

      • None: Select to not define a backup configuration for the database.
      • Local: Select to store backups locally in the Oracle Exadata Storage Servers on your Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer system.

        This option is available only if you enabled backups on local Oracle Exadata storage in the VM cluster that you want to host the database.

      • Object Storage: Select to store backups in an Oracle-managed object storage container on Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.

        To use this option, your Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer system must have egress connectivity to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage.

      • NFS: Select to store backups in one of your previously defined backup destinations that uses Network File System (NFS) storage. For more information, refer to the information about backup destinations in this publication.

        If you select this option, then you must also choose from the list of NFS Backup Destinations.

      • Recovery Appliance: Select to store backups in one of your previously defined backup destinations that uses Oracle Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance. Refer to the information about backup destination options in this document.

        If you select Oracle Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance as your backup option, then you must also:

        • Choose from the list of appliance Backup Destinations.
        • Choose from the VPC User list, which contains the list of virtual private catalog (VPC) user names that are defined in the Oracle Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance backup destination.
        • Provide the Password for the VPC user.
        Note

        If you select a backup destination, then you cannot change a backup location after the database is created. However, if you select None now, then you can select a backup destination after the database is created.

      • Enable automatic backups: Select this option to enable daily backups using the policy for automatic backups.

        This option is only enabled when you select a Backup Destination Type other than None. You can change this setting after database creation.

    • (Optional) Select Show Advanced Options. From this window, you can select the following options:

      • Backup retention period: From the list, you can choose the length of time that you want automatic backups to be retained.

        For backups to local Exadata storage, you can choose a retention period of 7 days or 14 days. The default retention period is 7 days.

        For backups to Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage, or to an NFS backup destination, you can choose one of the following preset retention periods: 7 days, 14 days, 30 days, 45 days, or 60 days. The default retention period is 30 days.

        This option does not apply to Oracle Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance backup destinations. For backups to Oracle Zero Data Loss Recovery Appliance, the retention policy that is implemented in the appliance controls the retention period.

      • Character set: The character set for the database. The default is AL32UTF8.
      • National character set: The national character set for the database. The default is AL16UTF16.
      • Tags: (Optional) You can choose to apply tags. If you have permissions to create a resource, you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, refer to information about resource tags.If you are not sure if you should apply tags, then skip this option (you can apply tags later), or ask your administrator.
  6. Click Create Database.

Using the Console to Move a Database to Another Database Home

Learn to move a database to another Database Home.

  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Database, click Exadata Cloud@Customer.
    VM Clusters is selected by default.
  2. Choose your Compartment that contains the VM cluster that hosts the database that you want to terminate.
  3. Click the name of the VM cluster that contains the database that you want to terminate.
  4. In the Resources list of the VM Cluster Details page, click Databases.
  5. Click the name of the database that you want to terminate.
    The Database Details page displays information about the selected database.
  6. Click Move Database.
  7. In the resulting dialog, select the target Database Home.
  8. Click Move Database.

The database will be stopped in the current home and then restarted in the destination home. While the database is being moved, the Database Home status displays as Moving Database. When the operation completes, Database Home is updated with the current home. If the operation is unsuccessful, the status of the database displays as Failed, and the Database Home field provides information about the reason for the failure.

Using the Console to Terminate a Database

You can terminate a database and thereby remove the terminated database from the Cloud Control Plane.

Terminating a database removes it from the Cloud Control Plane. In the process, all of the associated data files and backups are destroyed.
  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Database, click Exadata Cloud@Customer.
    VM Clusters is selected by default.
  2. Choose your Compartment that contains the VM cluster that hosts the database that you want to terminate.
  3. Click the name of the VM cluster that contains the database that you want to terminate.
  4. In the Resources list of the VM Cluster Details page, click Databases.
  5. Click the name of the database that you want to terminate.
    The Database Details page displays information about the selected database.
  6. Click Terminate.
  7. In the resulting dialog, enter the name of the database, and then click Terminate Database to confirm the action.

Using the API to Manage Database Components

Use various API features to help manage your databases on Oracle Exadata Cloud@Customer.

For information about using the API and signing requests, see "REST APIs" and "Security Credentials". For information about SDKs, see "Software Development Kits and Command Line Interface".

Use the following API operations to manage various database components.

Database homes:
  • CreateDbHome
  • DeleteDbHome
  • GetDbHome
  • ListDbHomes
Databases:
  • GetDatabase
  • ListDatabases
Nodes:
  • GetDbNode
  • List DbNodes

For the complete list of APIs, see "Database Service API".