Creating Oracle Exadata DB Systems

This topic explains how to create an Oracle Exadata DB system. It also describes how to configure required access to the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Object Storage service and set up DNS.

When you create an Oracle Exadata DB system using the Console or the API, the system is provisioned to support Oracle databases. The service creates an initial database based on the options you provide and some default options described later in this topic.

Warning

Avoid entering confidential information when assigning descriptions, tags, or friendly names to your cloud resources through the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console, API, or CLI.

Required IAM Policy

To use Oracle Cloud Infrastructure, you must be given the required type of access in a policy  written by an administrator, whether you're using the Console or the REST API with an SDK, CLI, or other tool. If you try to perform an action and get a message that you don’t have permission or are unauthorized, confirm with your administrator the type of access you've been granted and which compartment  you should work in.

For administrators: The policy in Let database admins manage DB systems lets the specified group do everything with databases and related Database resources.

If you're new to policies, see Getting Started with Policies and Common Policies. If you want to dig deeper into writing policies for databases, see Details for the Database Service.

Prerequisites

  • The public key, in OpenSSH format, from the key pair that you plan to use for connecting to the DB System via SSH. A sample public key, abbreviated for readability, is shown below.

    ssh-rsa AAAAB3NzaC1yc2EAAAABJQAA....lo/gKMLVM2xzc1xJr/Hc26biw3TXWGEakrK1OQ== rsa-key-20160304

    For more information, see Managing Key Pairs on Linux Instances

  • A correctly configured virtual cloud network (VCN) to launch the DB system in. Its related networking resources (gateways, route tables, security lists, DNS, and so on) must also be configured as necessary for the DB system. For more information, see Network Setup for Exadata DB Systems.

Default Options for the Initial Database

To simplify launching a DB system in the Console and when using the API, the following default options are used for the initial database.

  • Console Enabled: False
  • Create Container Database: False for version 11.2.0.4 databases. Otherwise, true.
  • Create Instance Only (for standby and migration): False
  • Database Home ID: Creates a database home
  • Database Language: AMERICAN
  • Database Sizing Template: odb2
  • Database Storage: Automatic Storage Management (ASM)
  • Database Territory: AMERICA
  • Database Unique Name: The user-specified database name and a system-generated suffix, for example, dbtst_phx1cs.
  • PDB Admin Name: pdbuser (Not applicable for version 11.2.0.4 databases.)

For a list of the database options that you can set in the Console, see To create an Exadata DB system.

Using the Console

To create an Exadata DB system
  1. Open the navigation menu. Under Database, click Bare Metal, VM, and Exadata.
  2. Click Create DB System.
  3. On the Create DB System page, provide the basic information for the DB system:

    • Select a compartment: By default, the DB system launches in your current compartment and you can use the network resources in that compartment.
    • Name your DB system: A friendly, display name for the DB system. The name doesn't need to be unique. An Oracle Cloud Identifier (OCID) will uniquely identify the DB system.
    • Select an availability domain: The availability domain  in which the DB system resides.
    • Select a shape type: The shape type you select sets the default shape and filters the shape options in the next field.
    • Select a shape: The shape determines the type of DB system and the resources allocated to the system. To specify a shape other than the default, click Change Shape, and select an available shape from the list. See Exadata DB System Shapes for available shapes in Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.

    • Configure the DB system: Specify the following:

      • Total node count: The number of nodes in the DB system. The number depends on the shape you select.
      • Oracle Database software edition: The database edition supported by the DB system. Exadata DB systems only support Enterprise Edition - Extreme Performance.
      • CPU core count: The number of CPU cores for the DB system. The text below the field indicates the acceptable values for that shape. The core count is evenly divided across the nodes.

        You can increase the CPU cores to accommodate increased demand after you launch the DB system.

        For an X8 or X7 Exadata DB system, or an Exadata base system, you can specify zero (0) CPU cores when you launch the system. This will provision the system and immediately stop it. See Scaling Within an Exadata System for information about CPU core scaling and the impact on billing. Oracle recommends that if you are not provisioning a stopped system (0 cores), that you specify at least 3 cores per node.

    • Configure storage: Specify the following:
      • Cluster Name: (Optional) A unique cluster name for a multi-node DB system. The name must begin with a letter and contain only letters (a-z and A-Z), numbers (0-9) and hyphens (-). The cluster name can be no longer than 11 characters and is not case sensitive.
      • Storage Allocation: The configuration settings that determine the percentage of storage assigned to DATA, RECO, and optionally, SPARSE disk:
        • Database Backups on Exadata Storage: Select this option if you intend to perform database backups to the local Exadata storage within your Exadata DB system environment. If you select this option, more space is allocated to the RECO disk group, which is used to store backups on Exadata storage. If you do not select this option, more space is allocated to the DATA disk group, which enables you to store more information in your databases.
        • Create Sparse Disk Group: Select this configuration option if you intend to use snapshot functionality within your Exadata DB system environment. If you select this option, the SPARSE disk group is created, which enables you to use Exadata DB system snapshot functionality for PDB sparse cloning. If you do not select this option, the SPARSE disk group is not created and Exadata DB system snapshot functionality will not be available on any database deployments that are created in the environment.
        Important

        Creating a sparse disk group impacts the storage available for the ASM disk groups (DATA and RECO) and you cannot change the storage allocation configuration after you provision your DB system. For information about the percentage of storage that will be assigned to DATA, RECO, and SPARSE disk based on your configuration, see Storage Configuration. Similar information will display under the options in the Console dialog.

    • Add public SSH keys: The public key portion of each key pair you want to use for SSH access to the DB system. You can browse or drag and drop .pub files, or paste in individual public keys. To paste multiple keys, click + Another SSH Key, and supply a single key for each entry.
    • Choose a license type: The type of license you want to use for the DB system. Your choice affects metering for billing.

      • License Included means the cost of the cloud service includes a license for the Database service.
      • Bring Your Own License (BYOL) means you are an Oracle Database customer with an Unlimited License Agreement or Non-Unlimited License Agreement and want to use your license with Oracle Cloud Infrastructure. This removes the need for separate on-premises licenses and cloud licenses.
  4. Specify the network information:

    • Virtual Cloud Network: The VCN in which to launch the DB system. Click Change Compartment to select a VCN in a different compartment.
    • Client subnet: The subnet to which the Exadata DB system should attach. Click Change Compartment to select a subnet in a different compartment.

       Do not use a subnet that overlaps with 192.168.16.16/28, which is used by the Oracle Clusterware private interconnect on the database instance. Specifying an overlapping subnet will cause the private interconnect to malfunction.

    • Backup subnet: The subnet to use for the backup network, which is typically used to transport backup information to and from Oracle Cloud InfrastructureObject Storage, and for Data Guard replication. Click Change Compartment to select a subnet in a different compartment, if applicable.

      Do not use a subnet that overlaps with 192.168.128.0/20. This restriction applies to both the client subnet and backup subnet.

      If you plan to back up databases to Object Storage, see the network prerequisites in Managing Exadata Database Backups.

    • Network Security Groups: Optionally, you can specify one or more network security groups (NSGs) for both the client and backup networks. NSGs function as virtual firewalls, allowing you to apply a set of ingress and egress security rules to your DB system. A maximum of five NSGs can be specified. For more information, see Network Security Groups and Network Setup for Exadata DB Systems.

      Note that if you choose a subnet with a security list, the security rules for the DB system will be a union of the rules in the security list and the NSGs.

      To use network security groups:

      • Check the Use Network Security Groups to Control Client Traffic check box. Note that you must have a virtual cloud network selected to be able to assign NSGs to your DB system.
      • Specify the NSG to use with the client network. You might need to use more than one NSG. If you're not sure, contact your network administrator.
      • To use additional NSGs with the client network, click + Another Network Security Group.
      • Check the Use Network Security Groups to Control Backup Traffic check box.
      • Specify the NSG to use with the backup network. You might need to use more than one NSG. If you're not sure, contact your network administrator.
      • To use additional NSGs with the backup network, click + Another Network Security Group.
    • Hostname prefix: Your choice of host name for the Exadata DB system. The host name must begin with an alphabetic character, and can contain only alphanumeric characters and hyphens (-). The maximum number of characters allowed for an Exadata DB system is 12.

      Important

      The host name must be unique within the subnet. If it is not unique, the DB system will fail to provision.
    • Host domain name: The domain name for the DB system. If the selected subnet uses the Oracle-provided Internet and VCN Resolver for DNS name resolution, this field displays the domain name for the subnet and it can't be changed. Otherwise, you can provide your choice of a domain name. Hyphens (-) are not permitted.

      If you plan to store database backups in Object Storage, Oracle recommends that you use a VCN Resolver for DNS name resolution for the client subnet because it automatically resolves the Swift endpoints used for backups.

    • Host and domain URL: Combines the host and domain names to display the fully qualified domain name (FQDN) for the database. The maximum length is 64 characters.
  5. Click Show Advanced Options to specify advanced options for the DB system:
    • Disk redundancy: Exadata DB systems support only high redundancy (3-way mirroring).
    • Time zone: The default time zone for the DB system is UTC, but you can specify a different time zone. The time zone options are those supported in both the Java.util.TimeZone class and the Oracle Linux operating system. For more information, see DB System Time Zone.

      Tip

      If you want to set a time zone other than UTC or the browser-detected time zone, and if you do not see the time zone you want, try selecting "Miscellaneous" in the Region or country list.

    • Tags: Optionally, you can apply tags. If you have permissions to create a resource, you also have permissions to apply free-form tags to that resource. To apply a defined tag, you must have permissions to use the tag namespace. For more information about tagging, see Resource Tags. If you are not sure if you should apply tags, skip this option (you can apply tags later) or ask your administrator.
  6. After you completed the network configuration and any advanced options, click Next.
  7. Provide information for the initial database:

    • Database name: The name for the database. The database name must begin with an alphabetic character and can contain a maximum of eight alphanumeric characters. Special characters are not permitted.
    • Database version: The version of the initial database created on the DB system when it is launched. After the DB system is active, you can create additional databases on it. You can mix database versions on the DB system.

      Note

      If you plan to run Oracle Database 19c on your Exadata DB system, you must specify version 19c when you create the DB system. Earlier database versions are supported on a 19c Exadata DB system and can be created at anytime. Exadata DB systems created with earlier Oracle Database versions will not automatically support Oracle Database 19c. The DB system must be upgraded manually.
    • PDB name: Not applicable to version 11.2.0.4. The name of the pluggable database. The PDB name must begin with an alphabetic character, and can contain a maximum of 8 alphanumeric characters. The only special character permitted is the underscore ( _).
    • Create administrator credentials: A database administrator SYS user will be created with the password you supply.

      • Username: SYS
      • Password: Supply the password for this user. The password must meet the following criteria:

        A strong password for SYS, SYSTEM, TDE wallet, and PDB Admin. The password must be 9 to 30 characters and contain at least two uppercase, two lowercase, two numeric, and two special characters. The special characters must be _, #, or -. The password must not contain the username (SYS, SYSTEM, and so on) or the word "oracle" either in forward or reversed order and regardless of casing.
      • Confirm password: Re-enter the SYS password you specified.
    • Select workload type: Choose the workload type that best suits your application:

      • Online Transactional Processing (OLTP) configures the database for a transactional workload, with a bias towards high volumes of random data access.
      • Decision Support System (DSS) configures the database for a decision support or data warehouse workload, with a bias towards large data scanning operations.
    • Configure database backups: Specify the settings for backing up the database to Object Storage:
      • Enable automatic backups: Check the check box to enable automatic incremental backups for this database.
      • Backup retention period: (Optional) If you enable automatic backups, you can choose one of the following preset retention periods: 7 days, 15 days, 30 days, 45 days, or 60 days. The default selection is 30 days.
      • Backup Scheduling: If you enable automatic backups, you can choose a two-hour scheduling window to control when backup operations begin. If you do not specify a window, the six-hour default window of 00:00 to 06:00 (in the time zone of the DB system's region) is used for your database. See Automatic Incremental Backups for more information.
    • Click Show Advanced Options to specify advanced options for the initial database:

      • Character set: The character set for the database. The default is AL32UTF8.
      • National character set: The national character set for the database. The default is AL16UTF16.
  8. Click Create DB System. The DB system appears in the list with a status of Provisioning. The DB system's icon changes from yellow to green (or red to indicate errors).

    After the DB system's icon turns green, with a status of Available, you can click the highlighted DB system name to see details about the DB system. Note the IP addresses. You'll need the private or public IP address, depending on network configuration, to connect to the DB system.

Exadata shapes

Exadata X8 shapes:

  • Exadata.Quarter3.100: Provides a 2-node Exadata DB system with up to 100 CPU cores, and 149 TB of usable storage.
  • Exadata.Half3.200: Provides a 4-node Exadata DB system with up to 200 CPU cores, and 299 TB of usable storage.
  • Exadata.Full3.400: Provides an 8-node Exadata DB system with up to 400 CPU cores, and 598 TB of usable storage.

Exadata X7 shapes:

  • Exadata.Quarter2.92: Provides a 2-node Exadata DB system with up to 92 CPU cores, and 106 TB of usable storage.
  • Exadata.Half2.184: Provides a 4-node Exadata DB system with up to 184 CPU cores, and 212 TB of usable storage.
  • Exadata.Full2.368: Provides an 8-node Exadata DB system with up to 368 CPU cores, and 424 TB of usable storage.

Exadata X6 shapes:

  • Exadata.Quarter1.84: Provides a 2-node Exadata DB system with 22 enabled CPU cores, with up to 62 additional CPU cores, and 84 TB of usable storage.
  • Exadata.Half1.168: Provides a 4-node Exadata DB system with 44 enabled CPU cores, with up to 124 additional CPU cores, and 168 TB of usable storage.
  • Exadata.Full1.336: Provides an 8-node Exadata DB system with 88 enabled CPU cores, with up to 248 additional CPU cores, and 336 TB of usable storage.

Exadata base system:

Exadata.Base.48: Provides a 2-node Exadata DB system with up to 48 CPU cores, and 74 TB of usable storage.

All Exadata shapes provide unlimited I/O, and support only Enterprise Edition - Extreme Performance. All Exadata shapes provide 720 GB RAM per node except for Exadata base systems, which provide 360 GB RAM per node. For more details about Exadata shapes, see System Configuration.

Configuring a Static Route for Accessing the Object Store

All the traffic in an Exadata DB system is, by default, routed through the data network. To route backup traffic to the backup interface (BONDETH1), you need to configure a static route on each of the compute nodes in the cluster. For instructions, see Node Access to Object Storage: Static Route.

Setting Up DNS for a DB System

DNS lets you use host names instead of IP addresses to communicate with a DB system. You can use the Internet and VCN Resolver (the DNS capability built into the VCN) as described in DNS in Your Virtual Cloud Network. Oracle recommends using a VCN Resolver for DNS name resolution for the client subnet. It automatically resolves the Swift endpoints required for backing up databases, patching, and updating the cloud tooling on an Exadata DB system.