This topic describes the database architecture, features, and user roles of Autonomous Database on dedicated Exadata infrastructure. For a general overview of Autonomous Databases that covers the basics common to both infrastructure options, see Overview of Autonomous Database.
Autonomous Databases on dedicated Exadata infrastructure have a three-level database architecture model that makes use of Oracle multitenant database architecture.
Each level of the architecture model corresponds to one of the following resources types:
An Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure resource. This is a hardware rack which includes compute nodes and storage servers, tied together by a high-speed, low-latency InfiniBand network and intelligent Exadata software. On dedicated Exadata infrastructure, you have exclusive use of the Exadata infrastructure and hardware on which your Autonomous Transaction Processing databases run.
For a list of the hardware and Oracle Cloud resource characteristics of Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure resources, see Characteristics of Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure Resources.
An Autonomous Container Database, which provides a container for multiple user databases. This resource is sometimes referred to as a CDB, and is functionally equivalent to the multitenant container databases found in Oracle 12c and higher databases.
Multitenant architecture offers many advantages over non-CDB architecture. For example, it does the following:
- Allows you to easily manage multiple individual user databases
- Makes more efficient use of database hardware, as individual databases may use only a fraction of the server hardware capacity
- Allows for easier and more rapid movement of data and code
- Allows for easier testing, as development databases can be housed within the same container as production databases
- Allows for the separation of duties between database administrators, who manage only the individual Autonomous Database instances to which they are granted privileges, and fleet managers, who manage infrastructure resources and container databases.
- An Autonomous Database. You can create multiple Autonomous Databases within the same container database. This level of the database architecture is analogous to the pluggable databases (PDBs) found in non-Autonomous Exadata systems. Your Autonomous Database can be configured for either transaction processing or data warehouse workloads.
You must create the dedicated Exadata infrastructure resources in the following order:
- Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure. See Creating an Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure Resource for more information.
- Autonomous Container Database. See Creating an Autonomous Container Database for more information.
- Autonomous Database. See Creating an Autonomous Database for more information.
Related resources and prerequisites include:
A Virtual Cloud Network (VCN) and a Subnet, which you create using Oracle Cloud Infrastructure's Networking service. You must have at least one VCN and one subnet available to provision an Autonomous Database with dedicated Exadata infrastructure.
For more information, see the following topics:
- Autonomous Backups, created for you automatically by the Autonomous Database service. You do not have to provision storage for your backups. Backups are stored in Object Storage that is managed by Oracle Cloud Infrastructure's Database service. Note that automatic backups incur Object Storage usage costs. By default, backups are stored for 60 days. Using the Console, you can choose to change the retention period to 7, 15, or 30 days.
- Manual Backups. Optionally, you can configure Autonomous Database to create on-demand manual backups. See Setting Up a Bucket to Store Manual Backups and Backing Up an Autonomous Database Manually for more information on manual backups. Manual backups are subject to the retention policy you have in place for the Autonomous Container Database. By default, manual backups are stored for 60 days.
Your organization may choose to split the administration of the Autonomous Database on dedicated Exadata infrastructure into the following roles:
Fleet Administrator. Fleet administrators create, monitor and manage Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure and Autonomous Container Database resources. A fleet administrator must have permissions for using the networking resources required by the dedicated Exadata infrastructure, and permissions to manage the infrastructure and container database resources.
See Fleet Administrator’s Guide to Oracle Autonomous Transaction Processing on Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure for a complete overview of the fleet administrator role.
Database Administrator. Database administrators create, monitor and manage Autonomous Databases. They also create and manage users within the database. Database administrators must have permissions for using container databases, for managing Autonomous Transaction Processing databases and backups, and for using the related networking resources. For manual backups, they must have permissions to use the designated Object Storage bucket. At the time of provisioning an Autonomous Database, the administrator provides user credentials for the automatically created ADMIN account, which provides administrative rights to the new database.
See Using Oracle Autonomous Transaction Processing on Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure for a complete overview of the database administrator role.
- Database User. Database users are the developers who write applications that connect to and use an Autonomous Database to store and access the data. Database users do not need Oracle Cloud Infrastructure accounts. They gain network connectivity to and connection authorization information for the database from the database administrator.
CPU Provisioning, CPU Scaling, and Storage Scaling
Autonomous Database on dedicated Exadata infrastructure allows for the over-subscription of CPU cores when provisioning databases. This means that for a given infrastructure resource, the sum of all CPU cores provisioned to Autonomous Databases can exceed the number of CPU cores on the Exadata rack. This approach allows for better CPU core utilization. Note that if all databases are heavily loaded at the same time, there will be some contention for CPU resources, and degraded performance.
Additionally, you can scale the CPU count and the storage capacity of the database at any time without impacting availability or performance.
Autonomous Database systems on dedicated Exadata infrastructure have separate regularly scheduled maintenance runs for both Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure resources and Autonomous Container Databases. You can choose to set the scheduling for your maintenance runs, or let the system handle maintenance scheduling. You can view the maintenance history for infrastructure instances and container databases in the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console.
Oracle recommends that you define the acceptable maintenance times for your Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure resources and Autonomous Container Databases. Doing so will prevent maintenance runs from occurring at times that would be disruptive to regular database operations.
Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure Maintenance
Infrastructure maintenance takes place at least once each quarter and is mandatory. You can schedule a maintenance window to control the time, day of the week, and week of the month that your infrastructure maintenance will begin. Infrastructure maintenance runs are for infrastructure patching (including patching of the Exadata grid infrastructure code and operating systems updates), and do not include database patching. Oracle will notify you in the weeks leading up to the quarterly infrastructure patching date about the upcoming maintenance. You can also view scheduled maintenance runs in the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure console. The following tasks explain how to view scheduled and past maintenance updates, and how to edit the maintenance schedule for an infrastructure instance:
- To configure the automatic maintenance schedule for an Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure resource
- To view the next scheduled maintenance for an Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure resource
- To view the maintenance history of an Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure resource
You can use the GetMaintenanceRun, ListMaintenanceRun, and UpdateAutonomousExadataInfrastructure API operations to view details about scheduled and past maintenance updates, and to update the maintenance schedule of your infrastructure instance.
Autonomous Container Database Maintenance
Container database maintenance updates include Oracle Database software patches and take place at least once each quarter. You can configure a maintenance window to control the time, day of the week, and week of the month that your maintenance update run will begin. Otherwise, Oracle will schedule container database maintenance runs for you so that they are coordinated with the maintenance runs of the associated Exadata infrastructure.
Container database maintenance runs must be scheduled to take place after quarterly Exadata infrastructure maintenance runs occur.
If a scheduled container database maintenance run cannot take place (because of changes made to infrastructure maintenance scheduling or other reasons), Oracle will automatically reschedule the container database maintenance for the following quarter. You can change your container database maintenance window or reschedule a single container database maintenance run to ensure that your container database maintenance runs follow infrastructure maintenance within the same quarter.
- Release Update (RU): Autonomous Database installs only the most current release update.
- Release Update Revision (RUR): Autonomous Database installs the release update plus additional fixes.
The following tasks explain how to view and edit maintenance updates information for Autonomous Container Databases:
- To configure the automatic maintenance schedule for an Autonomous Container Database
- To view the maintenance history of an Autonomous Container Database
- To reschedule or skip a scheduled maintenance run for an Autonomous Container Database
- To configure the type of maintenance patching for an Autonomous Container Database
Use the UpdateAutonomousContainerDatabase API operation to change the patching type for an Autonomous Container Database. Use the ListMaintenanceRun API operation to see past maintenance update information. Use the UpdateMaintenanceRun API operations to skip a container database maintenance update. You can skip maintenance runs for up to 2 consecutive quarters if needed.
Notifications for Maintenance of Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure and Autonomous Container Database Resources
Autonomous Database emits events for Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure and Autonomous Container Database maintenance runs. Using the Notifications service (which consumes events), you can create and subscribe to a Notifications topic, allowing you to receive notifications about your maintenance runs by email, PagerDuty alert, Slack, or https.
You can setup notifications based on the following events:
- A new maintenance run is scheduled
- A maintenance reminder email is sent
- A maintenance run begins
- A maintenance run ends.
See Getting Started with Events to learn about creating and subscribing to an Events topic. See Services that Produce Events for a full list of Database service events. See Managing Topics and Subscriptions to learn how to create and subscribe to a Notifications topic.
Using the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console to Manage Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure
For information on provisioning, managing, and backing up dedicated Exadata infrastructure resources in the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console, see the following topics:
For Fleet Administrators
- Creating an Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure Resource
- Creating an Autonomous Container Database
- Managing an Autonomous Exadata Infrastructure Resource
- Managing an Autonomous Container Database
- Fleet Administrator’s Guide to Oracle Autonomous Database on Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure (complete fleet administrator guide)
For Database Administrators
For known issues, see Known Issues for Oracle Autonomous Database on Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure.
- Overview of Autonomous Database on Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure
- Database System Architecture Overview
- User Roles
- CPU Provisioning, CPU Scaling, and Storage Scaling
- Overview of Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure Maintenance
- Using the Oracle Cloud Infrastructure Console to Manage Dedicated Exadata Infrastructure
- Additional Information